Engel, D. R.; Wagenlehner, F. M. E.; Shevchuk, O.

2024 Infect Dis Clin North Am

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a very common disease that is accompanied by various complications in the affected person. UTI triggers diverse inflammatory reactions locally in the infected urinary bladder and kidney, causing tissue destruction and organ failure. Moreover, systemic responses in the entire body carry the risk of urosepsis with far-reaching consequences. Understanding the cell-, organ-, and systemic mechanisms in UTI are crucial for prevention, early intervention, and current therapeutic approaches. This review summarizes the scientific advances over the last 10 years concerning pathogenesis, prevention, rapid diagnosis, and new treatment approaches. We also highlight the impact of the immune system and potential new therapies to reduce progressive and recurrent UTI.

Keywords: Antimicrobial peptides; Cystitis; Diagnosis; Immune system; Prevention; Pyelonephritis; Treatment; Urinary tract infection.